Cara Menulis Berita

Menulis berita adalah aktivitas utama wartawan dan praktisi humas. Namun, karena “everybody can be journalist” (tiap orang bisa jadi wartawan), maka menulisberita bisa menjadi aktivitas siapa saja, terutama para blogger dan aktivis mediasosial yang suka berbagi dan berekspresi. By Romeltea.

BERITA (news) adalah laporan peristiwa aktual yang dimuat di media massa. Menulis berita termasuk dalam keterampilan komunikasi media (mass media communication), yakni komunikasi melalui media massa.

Pedoman dasar cara menulis berita yang baik dan “benar” –sesuai dengan kaidah jurnalistik dan kelaziman berita media ada empat, yaitu unsur berita, piramida terbalik, bahasa jurnalistik, dan struktur naskah berita.

Unsur Berita

Menulis berita (news) itu intinya adalah menyusun 5W+1H, yaitu enam unsur berita:

  1. WHAT (Apa yang terjadi, peristiwa apa)
  2. WHO (Siapa yang melakukan, pelaku, atau yang terlibat dalam peristiwa)
  3. WHEN (Kapan kejadiannya, unsur waktu terjadinya peristriwa)
  4. WHERE (Di mana kejadiannya, unsur tempat kejadian peristiwa)
  5. WHY (Kenapa itu terjadi, kenapa si “who” melakukan itu, penyebab peristiwa, latar belakang kejadian)
  6. HOW (Bagaimana proses terjadinya, kronologinya, jalannya acara, detail peristiwa).

Piramida Terbalik

Keenam unsur tersebut biasanya disusun dengan formula atau gaya piramida terbalik (inverted pyramid), yakni mengedepankan unsur terpenting atau dinilai paling penting. Biasanya pula, yang dianggap terpenting adalah unsur WHAT dan WHO.

Bahasa Jurnalistik

Keenam unsur berita tersebut disusun sedemikian rupa dengan menggunakan bahasa jurnalistik, bahasa pers, newspaper languange, atau bahasa komunikasi massa (mass communication language) dengan karakteristik:

  1. Hemat kata (economy of words, ringkas).
  2. Lugas (to the point, tidak bertele-tele)
  3. Logis, mengacu pada formula SPOK (Subjek, Predikat, Objek, Keterangan)
  4. Mudah dipahami
  5. Kalimat pendek
  6. Kalimat aktif.

Struktur naskah berita

Paduan enam unsur berita dan bahasa jurnalistik tersebut dirangkai dalam sebuah naskah berita dengan struktur naskah berita sebagai berikut:

  1. Judul berita (head, headline, head title).
  2. Baris tanggal (creditline) –jika diperlukan (opsional)
  3. Teras berita (lead, alinea pertama, paragraf pertama, dalam 2-3 kalimat, biasanya terdiri dari unsur WHO, WHAT, WHEN, dan WHERE).
  4. Isi berita (body, rincian, detail, memaparkan unsur WHY dan HOW)


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